Age-Related Abundance of Lactobacillus Species in Urine and Hydrophobicity of Lactobacillus Species in Urine
The main topics discussed were an age-related abundance of Lactobacillus species in urine, the Association of lactobacillus strains with dental caries, and the Hydrophobicity of lactobacillus species in urine in this review. The next two articles will focus on these topics in greater detail. Read on to learn more about the benefits of Lactobacillus in the body. After reading them, you should be able to recognize the most common species, age-related abundance, and association of dental caries with urinary OTUs.
The age-related abundance of lactobacillus species in urine
The relative abundance of Lactobacillus species in urine declined with age. In older women, the proportion of Lactobacillus species decreased. In contrast, the proportion of Peptococcus increased. In the premenopausal cohort, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was highest. Moreover, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was lower in women after menopause. The authors suggest that the decreasing abundance of Lactobacillus may be due to estrogen levels in the urine of older women.
In contrast, the urinary microbiome of older women shows a marked difference from that of younger women. This difference is attributed to a different combination of factors: the women’s age, menopause, and host genetics. Although the two cohorts did not share similar microbiota compositions, they had many common microbes. These differences were associated with their age, menopause, and prior UTI.
The most common bacterial group in women’s urine was L. iners. In men, the corresponding bacterial groups were mostly Lactobacilli. The proportion of Gram-positive uropathobionts was low, while Gram-negative uropathogens were abundant in premenopausal women. However, among women with postmenopausal RUTI, L. crispatus was the most prevalent, and L. iners was the least abundant.
A previous study reported the presence of a higher proportion of Escherichia/Shigella bacteria in women with RUTI. The researchers found that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus species was not significantly different in women of sub-Saharan Africa compared to women of Dutch origin. These findings suggest that the age-related increase in the population could be attributed to the difference in bacterial community composition.
There are other types of Lactobacillus present in the urine of people with diabetes. These bacteria may play a role in diabetes regulation. In mice, the levels of Lactobacillus in urine increased with diabetes and were lower in those with normal blood glucose levels. These findings are consistent with the recent study on gut microbiota findings. In humans, Lactobacillus casei Zhang may also protect against the onset of T2DM.
Other strains of Lactobacillus were common in the VMB of premenopausal women. BV-anaerobes, Lactobacillus crispatus, and L. iners were most common. However, they were rare in women with BV. In women’s urine, the proportion of L. iners was significantly lower in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis.
There were fewer studies on the microbiota in males. However, Lactobacillus species dominated the microbial communities in both males and females in men. They were distributed between seven different prototypes. This study further suggests that a similar population pattern is observed in women. Therefore, these bacteria might be associated with a certain bacterial community in female urinary tracts.
Despite these findings, the underlying bacterial community is still not known. However, it has been shown that the composition of the FUM differs greatly between healthy men and women. It is still unclear which bacterial species are most common in women with a healthy bladder. In women, low-abundant species were more frequent than those with high-abundance. In general, both methods show high inter-individual differences in the composition of the urinary microbiome.
Association of lactobacillus species with dental caries
While many known factors may contribute to the onset of dental caries, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in Ethiopian school-age children. The study investigates the association between salivary Lactobacillus spp. and oral health characteristics, including the prevalence of dental caries and lactobacillus overgrowth. The study also sought to identify relevant factors as determinants of dental caries.
Human infection by Lactobacillus species is uncommon, but it is a potentially harmful pathogen. It has been associated with dental caries, infective endocarditis, urinary tract infections, and vascular graft infections. Nevertheless, the bacteria have been associated with other conditions, such as meningitis, endometritis, and liver abscess.
In this case, the patient was hospitalized with suspected renal sepsis and was given cefepime and vancomycin. In addition, she had undergone urological manipulation and a foreign device placed in her kidney four months before admission. She was given antibiotics for her urological condition, but her infection remained mild. A follow-up visit was performed two weeks after her hospitalization. She has since undergone a double J stent to manipulate the stone into the kidney.
The study also found an association between a child’s grade level and dental caries. Children in the first school cycle have a 1.7-fold increased risk of dental caries compared to 2nd cycle students. However, as the study from Bahir Dar revealed, the prevalence among 1st cycle students is two times higher than in 2nd cycle pupils. Perhaps, this is a result of better exposure to toothpaste in school.
Although the study results are preliminary, it is important to note that four different databases confirmed the blood culture isolates from these women. BLAST NCBI, Silva-Living Tree, and RDP (ribosomal database project) confirm L. delbrueckii. In addition, DNA sequencing and gene-based analyses were performed to confirm the diagnosis. While further analysis would have confirmed that L. delbrueckii is the causative agent, the findings would not have changed the clinical management of the patients.
These studies have highlighted the importance of the microbiome in urologic health. Several studies have suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus species in urine can indicate a host’s susceptibility to urological diseases. This information could also help researchers develop novel prevention and treatment modalities for these diseases. One study reported that a female patient with high-grade urothelial cancer had an increased abundance of Lactobacillus species in her urine.
The authors’ findings are interesting. First, lactobacillus species are not considered a pathogen but should be suspected when present in the clinical setting. A patient with bacteremia due to gram-positive rods should be tested for Lactobacillus spp. They also note a strong association between the presence of Lactobacillus species and dental caries.
Hydrophobicity of lactobacillus strains
One study investigated the hydrophobicity of Lactobacillus and found that strains differed in their ability to adhere to a variety of substrata. Several factors are associated with this characteristic, including genetic typing and hydrophobicity. Various urinary components may alter the hydrophobicity of lactobacillus strains. The findings are discussed in this paper.
In in vitro and in vivo experiments, researchers investigated the hydrophobicity of Lactobacillus species. In urine, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 exhibited significant adhesion to hydrophobic glass and silicone rubber. This high hydrophobicity may be related to its zeta potential. Although some Lactobacillus strains are hydrophobic, their adherent properties appear to be unimportant.
In vitro studies also demonstrate that lactobacillus strains aggregate with other bacteria. In one study, strain GR-1 aggregated with E. coli ATCC 25922 and eight lactobacilli strains with at least two uropathogenic bacteria. This in vitro assay system was developed to measure coaggregation among various bacteria. Most of the coaggregation occurred after 4 hours at 37 deg.
A thermodynamic approach is necessary to explain the differences in bacterial adhesion. Qualitative hydrophobicity cannot predict the adhesion behavior of these bacteria, but quantitative hydrophobicity is a good indicator. This type of hydrophobicity may be used to predict the behavior of E. coli in urine. It has many advantages. Its quantitative hydrophobicity can predict adhesion.
Among the lactobacilli strains tested, L. helveticus strains 4-17 exhibited the greatest hydrophobicity. The bacteria also exhibited significant anti-adhesive properties. This probiotic may be introduced as a novel candidate probiotic for controlling GI infection diseases. For these reasons, it is worth further study. There are many potential applications for Lactobacillus in humans.
The bacterium was cultivated on MRS broth for 18-24 hours at 37 deg. After the culturing process, the cultured bacteria were streaked onto blood agar plates containing sheep’s blood. The bacteria were then incubated under anaerobic conditions for two weeks. A clear zone around the colonies demonstrates the bacterium’s hemolytic activity. This bacterium is used as a positive control.
Lactobacillus species are dominant in the vaginal environment and have important health-promoting effects on their host. Functional properties, such as antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, and bile salt hydrolase activity were assessed for safety. Hydrophobicity was also measured as a function of auto-aggregation and coaggregation abilities.