Lactobacillus reuteri is an ancient probiotic bacteria native to Papua New Guinea. This species of bacteria is found naturally in the digestive tract and has been associated with health benefits for humans. Many studies demonstrate its positive effects on the immune system. However, the species has largely disappeared from the countryside of Papua New Guinea. This is greatly due to a deficiency of specific carbohydrates that the organism needs to survive and thrive.
Glucans and fructans
The metabolites Lactobacillus reuteri produce are primarily glucans and fructans. The glucan sucrase GTFA in Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 is similar to GTFA and synthesizes an a-glucan with alternating linkages. The mechanism by which the glucan sucrase forms alternating linkages is unclear. GTFO’s related enzyme synthesizes a-glucan but in a different ratio from GTFA. It appears that residues in loop977 are essential for alternating linkage synthesis.
The glucans and fructans produced by Lactobacillus reuteri strain LB 121 are primarily composed of glucose and fructose. Moreover, these glucans are resistant to digestion and may be useful in controlling blood glucose levels. Their slow-acting properties make them effective for regulating blood glucose and insulin levels. These metabolites also improve gut health.
Both glucansucrases and fructans in Lactobacillus reuteri have different physicochemical properties. Dextran, the most studied a-glucan, mainly contains a1-to-a6 linkages and varies in branching. Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F can produce dextran on an industrial scale as a biotechnological separation matrix and blood plasma expander. In addition to that, it is also used in the food industry.
Both strains are capable of producing inulin and glucan. This enzyme can also break down other compounds beneficial to human health. Inulin is a low-molecular-mass soluble compound that inhibits a variety of microorganisms. It is also used in commercial milk products. It is one of the heterofermentative lactobacilli that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract.
In addition to the growth of L. reuteri on sucrose, it also synthesizes levan and glucan from maltose and glucose. The levansucrase enzyme is also produced, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. In addition to synthesizing glucan and fructan from sugar, L. reuteri can also produce fructans.
The antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri strains was evaluated using a disk diffusion assay. After 48-hour cultures of L. reuteri, cell-free supernatants were prepared. The bacteria were vaccinated onto agar dishes, and then filter paper discs were placed on the agar surface. Disk diffusion assays were conducted to measure the presence of a clear zone surrounding the disk after 24 or 48 h.
The bacteria are mutualistic with their hosts. These organisms form lactic acid and are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Although they do not cause disease, they have several beneficial health effects. Here’s how L. reuteri can benefit you. While it has some antimicrobial properties, its most common role is to produce nutrients. Lactobacillus reuteri can produce vitamin B12 and reuterin, which are powerful antimicrobials.
This bacterium inhibits H. pylori and promotes regulatory T cell development in humans and rodents. It also strengthens the intestinal barrier and decreases microbial translocation. These antibacterial properties may explain why increasing the amount of L. reuteri in the gastrointestinal tract can alleviate inflammatory diseases. However, as we age, our immune system may become more susceptible to infection.
In addition to antibacterial and probiotic effects, L. reuteri has several other beneficial effects on the host. These include antibacterial and therapeutic effects in certain diseases, including infantile colic, eczema, and H. pylori infection. If the bacteria can suppress the immune system, it can likely be a promising therapy for these conditions.
To test the antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri AN417, the probiotic strain was cultured in MRS broth for 48 hours under anaerobic conditions. The supernatant was collected by centrifugation at four degC at 1500 xg. The supernatant was further purified by passing the sample through a 0.2-mm polytetrafluorethylene filter.
Several genes of L. reuteri are responsible for its antimicrobial activity. The reuteri AN417 has a gene for a major antibacterial compound, and the corresponding genes are not present in the strains from rodents. The gene for a reuteri protein is absent in the secA2 mutant. These findings suggest that Lactobacillus reuteri can produce this protein.
Human health benefits
Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is an important bacterium with several clinical uses. These uses include reducing the risk of several neurodevelopmental disorders, increasing immune function, and reducing the incidence of obesity and diabetes. Some studies have shown that Lactobacillus reuteri can modulate the expression of TJ proteins, resulting in decreased intestinal permeability in humans.
L. reuteri is a heterofermentative bacterium that has been isolated from the feces of humans, breast milk, oral cavity, and gastrointestinal tracts. It is also isolated from guinea pigs, rats, broilers, and pigs, and it has been found to possess probiotic properties and have health benefits. Moreover, it has been found that L. reuteri increases the immune system and reduces the risk of many inflammatory diseases.
This bacterium is also known to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens, including porcine rotavirus. According to a study published in PLoS Genet, Lactobacillus reuteri can maintain a functional mucosal barrier even after DSS treatment. However, other bacterium species have demonstrated more benefits. However, studies are still ongoing.
There are several clinical trials in humans involving L. reuteri. Its beneficial effects have been found to reduce gastric malignancies, including H. pylori. In these studies, L. reuteri has been shown to inhibit the growth of H. pylori in vitro. It also can produce vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Taking Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to reduce the risk of cavities in babies. This probiotic reduces the risk of a baby having a cavity because it decreases the number of cavities in the mouth. In addition, Lactobacillus has decreased the duration and severity of stomach pain in children. It has even reduced the number of infections associated with cystic fibrosis, a condition that increases the risk of lung complications.
Researchers have shown that the EPS produced by L. reuteri is important for biofilm formation and adhesion to epithelial surfaces. L. reuteri inhibits the adhesion of E. coli to porcine epithelial cells and is also known to suppress the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These probiotics have shown promise in reducing the risk of diarrhea in piglets.
Mechanism of action
A study of Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, has revealed that specific strains enhance the function of the gut barrier by inducing HSP and enhancing the tight junction protein, which strengthens the cells’ resistance to ETEC challenge. The bacterial isolates from different strains induce different levels of cytokines and interact with pathogens, thereby revealing their specific mechanisms of action.
One mechanism of action is the production of reuterin, an antibiotic that has many benefits for human health. Several studies have shown that L. reuteri confers high-level resistance to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. This strain of L. reuteri has been shown to significantly moderate mortality and morbidity associated with Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.
Reuterin was detected in milk and yogurt fermented with L. reuteri, and its production reduced the occurrence of intestinal coliforms in pigs. The production of reuterin is believed to cause the probiotic effects of L. reuteri in human probiotics. The enzyme glide is responsible for reuterin production.
In a recent study, L. reuteri strains reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-8, and interferon-gamma in neonates. It also decreased the production of TNF-a from monocytoid cells. This probiotic is likely to exert many more beneficial effects in humans. So, if you’re looking for a probiotic, consider taking it as a supplement.
Lactobacillus strains stimulate the expression of TLR2, a receptor that recognizes peptidoglycan, a type of molecule common to Gram-positive bacteria. This protein, in particular, is required by Lactobacillus strains to exert their immunomodulatory effects. Cinderella et al.’s study showed that L. casei CRL 431 interacted with epithelial cells through TLR2 receptors. This increased CD-206 and TLR2 receptors.
Several studies have suggested that L. reuteri DSM 17938 may be beneficial in reducing the incidence of diarrhea in young children. Infants attending daycare centers are at a higher risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Regular calcium milk for preterm infants with this bacteria may reduce the incidence of diarrheal disease. Even if there is no strong proof to reinforce this claim, it is important to continue research to find out more about the probiotic and its mechanisms of action.