Benefits of Lactobacillus
There are many benefits of Lactobacillus, a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium. One of these is its anti-inflammatory properties. Another is its ability to modulate signaling pathways and suppress hypersensitivity. Listed below are a few other benefits of Lactobacillus. All are well worth considering, especially if you suffer from any of the above conditions. So, get ready to reap the benefits of Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium.
Regulatory agencies have evaluated the safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus and other organisms used in food production. A consensus exists worldwide that the bacterium is safe for use in most foods. Moreover, a recent European Food Safety Authority review found that the L. acidophilus DDS(r)-1 strain is free of known virulence genes and is safe for use in human food products.
This bacterium is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the Lactobacillaceae family. It is widely distributed in milk, manure, and animal feeds. It is also commonly found in yogurt and cheese production and is a crucial part of the fermentation process of pickles and juices. It is important for human health because it has multiple beneficial effects on the immune system.
It is a genus of nonmotile, gram-positive rods that use glucose fermentatively. Some species are homofermentative, while others are predominantly heterofermentative. The type species of Lactobacillus acidophilus is Lactobacillus delbrueckii Teichmann 1896. There are about 80 recognized species and 15 subspecies.
Despite the bacterium’s beneficial effects, some strains risk causing a bacterial infection. Among the species tested for bacterial infections, L. acidophilus is generally non-pathogenic in humans. However, some strains of Lactobacillus are associated with bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals.
In addition, L. acidophilus is considered an obligate homo-fermentative species that represent a significant constituent of the gut flora. The species has been deliberately introduced to the food chain and is now widely used as a probiotic in many foods and feed products. There are numerous strains of this bacterium commercially. For the next generation of research, L. acidophilus DDS(r)-1 should be a priority.
It has anti-inflammatory properties.
There is an increasing body of evidence that lactobacilli possess anti-inflammatory properties, although its protective functions and mechanism of inhibition of necrotic enteritis are unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Lactobacillus fermentum 1.2029, a type of probiotic strain that has high adhesive properties. This strain can survive in low pH conditions and contains bile salts, among its other characteristics.
Studies have shown that a strain of Lactobacillus reuteri LM1071 has anti-inflammatory properties. This strain inhibits the production of inflammation mediators such as COX-2 and eicosanoids. It also enhances the expression of genes involved in the inflammation response. Despite the potential benefits of L. reuteri, further research is needed to identify the exact mechanism of action.
In animal studies, oral administration of Lactobacillus bacteria suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver, lungs, and kidney. These effects were further observed in humans. IL-10 was an important macrophage deactivator and inhibited the synthesis of COX-2 and prostaglandins. The strain inhibits the synthesis of COX-2 and TNF-a, which are responsible for the inflammatory response in the body.
In a recent study, researchers found that bile salt hydrolase and beta-galactosidase produced by Lactobacillus species were associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of the bacteria. In addition to their ability to lower cholesterol, probiotics also help the host organism cope with lactose intolerance. One study, conducted by Chae et al., revealed that Lactobacillus fermentum binds to epithelial cells of the small intestine, which protects against bacterial pathogens.
It modulates signaling pathways.
In an experiment with human PIE cells, the presence of different strains of Lactobacillus altered the production of inflammatory mediators. The effects of different Lactobacillus strains on the expression of IL-1a, IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-8 mRNAs were assessed after 12 h of incubation. The effects of Lactobacillus on IL-1a and MCP-1 mRNA were significant but not statistically significant.
The effects of Lactobacillus on signaling pathways are complex:
- The bacteria secrete soluble factors that induce apoptosis in immune cells.
- They inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells.
- Lactobacillus activates the transcriptional activity of Bcl-3.
It also inhibits the transcription of TLR4-mediated signaling.
Moreover, the strains of Lactobacillus fermentum modulate the transcription of several pattern recognition receptors, including TLR-2 and -4. They also inhibited the nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic NF-kB subunit. These effects suggest that Lactobacillus is an important nutraceutical that holds promise to prevent the development of gut-associated dysfunctions.
Another study on L. jensenii TL2937 demonstrated that it inhibited TLR4 signaling. This bacterial strain inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKa and -b and the expression of IL-8 mRNA. In addition, it inhibited the phosphorylation of NFkB subunit p65 and NFkB. Further, it inhibited the production of IL-12 by dendritic cells and macrophages.
Several probiotics also inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines in human intestinal epithelial cells. This inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines, which reduce the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Moreover, pretreatment of Caco-2BBe cells with LGG inhibited TNFa-induced activation of NFkB. Further, probiotics modulate the expression of MCP-1, a marker of inflammatory responses.
It suppresses hypersensitivity
In some studies, it has been shown that Lactobacillus can suppress the production of cytokines. This effect is mediated through the NF-kB pathway and the induction of PRR signaling. The immune response is controlled by the expression of cytokines in mature DC, which are essential for antigen presentation, clonal expansion, and differentiation. In addition, the different kinds of stimuli may affect the levels of certain cytokines in the DCS.
The use of probiotic Lactobacillus strains has been studied extensively. Some clinical studies have had inconclusive or negative results. However, other trials have yielded promising results. Probiotic lactobacilli have effectively treated acute infectious diarrhea and prevented antibiotic-associated diarrhea in several human clinical trials. Recent reviews have examined the use of probiotic Lactobacilli to treat allergic disorders. The most common strain used in clinical studies has been Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which has been shown to prevent atopic dermatitis and suppress the production of cytokines associated with Th1/Th2 balance.
Probiotics can also modulate the immune response of mice. The interactions between probiotics and immune cells are complex, but a key component involves innate pattern recognition receptors on T cells. Furthermore, different strains of Lactobacillus can regulate the functions of different human T cells. In addition, studies have shown that intestinal lactobacilli can activate CD4+ T cells, which are found in the blood, Peyer’s patches, and intestine lamina propria.
The safety profile of lactobacilli is generally excellent. Several species are “generally recognized as safe” in the food industry because of their long history of fermentation and consumption. However, some studies have indicated that these bacteria may cause some health problems. Therefore, the safest source for these bacteria should be foods that do not have a high risk of allergies and other gastrointestinal disorders. So, take note!
It inhibits IgE production.
Research in Japan has recently found that Lactobacillus inhibits IgG production in mice. This bacterium was introduced via nasal lavage, and the mice’s serum IgE levels decreased. It was also found that oral administration of the bacterium improved Th1/Th2 balance in murine models. These results indicate that Lactobacillus may play a role in preventing IgE-mediated allergy.
We first performed a laboratory experiment to test if Lactobacillus inhibits IgG3 production in mice. We grew RBL-2H3 cells in six-well culture plates. At the 13th week, serum IgG3 levels were determined. In the control group, serum IgE production increased quickly. But, in the group treated with IDCC 2097, serum IgG3 levels did not increase.
Furthermore, we found that human intestinal Bifidobacteria inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cells. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed with Lactobacillus GG. These findings indicate that lactobacilli may alter the activation of mast cells. Further, we found that Lactobacillus inhibits IgE production by modulating mast cells.
Mast cells are multifunctional regulator cells located in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They respond to environmental stimuli through the cutaneous and respiratory tracts. They are known effectors of allergic responses. They release mediators and proinflammatory cytokines and activate the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI).
These effects were also seen in mice. The L-137 strain of Lactobacillus inhibited the production of IL-4 and IL-12 in the peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the spleen cells to produce IL-12 and interferon-g. Furthermore, it inhibited the production of IgE against casein. This finding has significant implications for future research.